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egbertine the great

Friday, April 14, 2006

Duchy of Lorraine

The Duchy of Lorraine was an independent state for most of the period of time between 843 to 1739. The Duchy, as well as the modern region of Lorraine, was the focus of centuries of dispute between France and Germany. In the early period, Lorraine was known as Kingdom of Lotharingia, ruled by members of the Carolingian French dynasty. At some time, during the 10th century, Lorraine was divided in Upper and Lower region. The Dukes of Lower Lorraine abandoned this style in favour of Duke of Brabant. The Upper Lorraine part was known simply as Lorraine and its rulers are listed below. The House of Guise, who played an important role in the Wars of Religion of the 16th century is a junior branch of the House of Lorraine. In the 17th century, the French kings began to covet Lorraine, which lay between France proper and its possessions in Alsace. Lorraine, after siding with the Emperor in the Thirty Years War, was largely occupied by the French in 1641. In 1670, the French invaded again, forcing Duke Charles III of Lorraine to flee to a Viennese exile. The French continued to occupy Lorraine for almost thirty years, only giving it up to Charless heir by the Treaty of Ryswick which ended the Nine Years War in 1697. The Duchy was again occupied during the War of the Spanish Succession, although Duke Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine continued to reign. Leopolds son and successor, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, was forced to give up the Duchy in 1737, after the War of the Polish Succession, in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Francis Stephen was betrother to Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter and heir to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and the French would only approve the marriage if Francis gave up his rights to Lorraine. Francis and Maria Theresas marriage resulted in the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Replacing Francis Stephen in Lunéville was the last Duke of Lorraine, Stanislaus I of Poland, former king of Poland, Louiss son-in-law, with the understanding that it would revert to the French crown upon his death. With Stanislass death in 1766, the long independent history of the Duchy of Lorraine came to an end, and the Duchy was annexed to France.

Kings of Lotharingia

Lothar I, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 843-855), also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy and Bavaria
Lothair II of Lotharingia (r. 855 – 869)

Dukes of Lorraine

First rulers

Reginald I, Duke of Lotharingia (r. 900-911) styled Duke of Lotharingia
Giselbert, Duke of Lotharingia download adobe acrobat reader(r. 924 – 939) styled Duke of afreda5d25Lotharingia
Henry I (r. 939 – 944)
Conrad the Red, the Red (r. 944 – 953)
Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne (r. 953 – 959), also Archbishop of Köln
Friedrich I (r. 959 – 978)
Thierry I (r. 978 – 1027)
Friedrich II (r. 1027 – 1033)
Gothelo, the Great (r. 1033 – 1044)
Godfrey, the Bearded (r. 1044 – 1046)

House of Ardennes (Metz)

Adalbert, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1047 – 1048)
Gerhard, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1048 – 1070)
Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1070 – 1115)
Simon I, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1115 – 1138)
Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1138 – 1176)
Simon II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1176 – 1205)
Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1205 – 1206)
Frederick II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1206 – 1213)
Theobald I, Duke of Lorraine (r. adobe acrobat reader free download1213 – 1220)
Matthias II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1220 – 1251)
Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1251 – 1302)
Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1302 – 1312)
Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1302 – 1329)
Rudolph, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1329 – 1346)
John I, free acrobat readerDuke of Lorraine (r. 1346 – 1390)
Charles I, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1390 – 1431)
Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine (r. adobe acrobat 701431 – 1453)
with her husband René, Duke of Anjou and King of Naples

House of Anjou

John II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1453 – 1470), also King of Naples
Nicholas I, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1470 – 1473)

House of Vaudemont

Junior branch of the previous rulers of Ardennes-Metz
René II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1473 acrobat download– 1508), also Duke of Bar
Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, the Good (r. 1508 – 1544)
Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1544 – 1545)
Charles II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1545 – 1608)
Henry I, Duke of Lorraine, the Good (r. 1608 – 1624)
Francis II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1624)
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1624 – 1634)
Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1634 – 1661)
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine (r. 1661 - 1669)
From 1669 to 1697, Lorraine is under French control. Titular Dukes:
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine 1669-1675
Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine 1675-1690
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine 1690-1697
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine adobe acrobat download(r. 1697 – 1729)
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1729 – 1737) in 1745 he became Holy Roman Emperor

House of Leszczyski

Stanislaus I of Poland sigiwaldbjff(r. 1737 – 1766) former king of Poland
after him, the Duchy is inherited by his son in law, king Louis XV of France and incorporated in his dominions

Congenital disorder

A congenital disorder is a medical condition that is present at childbirth. A congenital disorder can be recognized before birth (prenatally), at birth, or many years later. Congenital disorders can be a result of genetic abnormalities, the intrauterine environmental, or unknown factors. A congenital condition can arise from the genetic make-up of the zygote or be acquired at any time during embryogenesis. The causes of many congenital disorders are not known. Congenital disorders include minor physical anomalies (e.g., a birthmark), severe malformations of single systems (e.g., congenital heart disease or amelia of the legs), and combinations of abnormalities affecting several parts of the body. Defects of metabolism are also considered congenital disorders. A congenital disorder can have trivial or grave effects. The most severe, such as Cephalic-disorders, are incompatible with life. About 2-3% of babies are born with significant congenital birth defects. By organ system, birth defects involving the brain are the largest group at 10 per 1000 live births), compared to heart at 8 per 1000, kidneys at 4 per 1000, and limbs at 2 per 1000. All other defects have a combined incidence of 6 per 1000 live births. About 25% of birth defects result from genetic abnormalities. About 5% involve abnormalities of large portions or entire chromosomes. Some congenital disorders arise from heredity of abnormal genes from the parents but some can arise from a new mutation in one of the germ cells that contributed to the fetus. Influences of the intrauterine environment of the fetus marlyssajbotwhich can cause birth defects are referred to as teratogenesis. These can include dietary deficiencies, toxic effects, or infections. For example, dietary deficiency of maternal folic acid is associated with spina bifida. Exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy (e.g, mercury (element)) or maternal drugs (e.g., phenytoin) can cause recognizable combinations of birth defects. Many infections (e.g., rubella, syphilis), which a mother can contract during pregnancy can affect the baby. A significant proportion of birth defects cannot be attributed to either genetic abnormalities or environmental exposures. These are referred to as sporadic birth defects, a term which implies an unknown cause, random occurence, and and a low recurrence risk for free adobe acrobat readerfuture children.


Congenital disorders is a broad category that includes a variety of conditions. The following terms are used for various subsets of congenital disorders. Birth defect is a widely-used term for a structural malformation of a body part, recognizable at birth, which is significant enough to be perceived as acrobat downloada problem. A congenital physical anomaly is a difference, an abnormality, of the structure of a body part. An anomaly may or may not be perceived as a problem condition. Many people, if examined carefully, have minor physical anomaly. Examples of minor anomalies can include curvature of the 5th finger (clinodactyly), tiny indentations of the skin near the ears (preauricular pits), shortness of the 4th metacarpal or metatarsal bones, or dimples over the lower spine (sacral dimples). Some minor anomalies may be clues to more significant internal abnormalities. A congenital malformation is a deleterious physical anomaly, a structural defect perceived as a problem. A recognizable combination of malformations or problems affecting more than one body part is referred to as a malformation syndrome. Genetic diseases or disorders are all congenital, though they may not be expressed or recognized until later in life. Genetic diseases may be divided into single-gene defects, multiple gene disorders, or chromosomal defects. Single-gene defects may arise from abnormalities of both copies of an autosome gene (a recessive disorder) or of only one of the two copies (a dominant disorder). Some conditions result from deletions or abnormalities of a few genes located contiguously download adobe acrobat readeron a chromosome. Chromosomal disorders involve the loss or duplication of larger portions of a chromosome (or an entire chromosome) containing hundreds of genes. Large chromosomal abnormalities always produce effects on many different body parts and organ systems. A congenital metabolic disease is also referred to as an inborn error of metabolism. Most of these are single gene defects, usually inheritable. Many affect the structure of body parts but some simply affect the function. Finally note that congenital conditions can be referred to as diseases, defects, disorders, anomalies, or simply genetic differences. The usage overlaps, but also involves a value judgement as to the harmfulness of the condition. See human variability and disease for more on the occasional difficulties of drawing these distinctions.

Risk of birth defects throughout gestation

The greatest risk of a malformation occurring is between the third and eighth week of gestation. Before this time, any damage to the embryo is likely to result in fatality and the baby will not be born. After eight weeks, the fetus and its organs are more developed, and is less sensitive to teratogenic incidents. The type of birth defect is also related to the time of exposure to a teratogen. For instance the heart is susceptible from three to eight weeks, but the ear is susceptible from a slightly later time to about twelve weeks. Infection in the mother free acrobat readerearly in the adobe acrobat readerthird week may damage the heart. An infection in the eleventh week is less likely to damage the heart, but the baby may be born deaf.


The National Library of Medicine or MEDLINE/PubMed Retrieve&db mesh&list-uids 81000151&dopt Full MeSH (medical subject heading) term

List of congenital disorders

Aicardi syndrome
Amniotic Band syndrome
Angelman syndrome
Bannayan-Zonana syndrome
Barth syndrome
Basal Cell Nevus syndrome
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
Bloom syndrome
Cat Eye syndrome
Cerebral Gigantism
CHARGE syndrome
Chromosome 16 Abnormalities
Chromosome 18 Abnormalities
Chromosome 20 Abnormalities
Chromosome 22 acrobat readerAbnormalities
Conjoined twins
Costello syndrome
Cri-du-Chat syndrome
Cystic Fibrosis
De Lange syndrome
Distal Trisomy faruqlg6210q
Down syndrome
Ectodermal Dysplasia
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
Fetofetal Transfusion
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
Hemifacial Microsomia
Incontinentia Pigmenti
Ivemark syndrome
Jacobsen syndrome
Karsch-Neugebauer syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome
Larsen syndrome
Laurence-Moon syndrome
Monosomy 9p-
Nail-Patella syndrome
Neonatal Jaundice
Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinosis
Noonan syndrome
Ochoa syndrome
Oculocerebrorenal syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome
Proteus syndrome
Prune Belly syndrome
Rett syndrome
Robinow syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
Situs inversus
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
Smith-Magenis syndrome
Sturge-Weber syndrome
Congenital syphilis
Triple-X Females
Trisomy 13
Trisomy 9
Turner syndrome
Umbilical Hernia
Usher syndrome
Waardenburgs syndrome
Werner syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome Some other birth defects:
cleft lip
cleft palate
club foot
spina bifida

Laz language

The Laz language (Lazuri in Laz, Chanuri in Georgian language) is spoken by an ethnic group of the same name on the Southeast shore of the Black Sea. It is estimated that there are between 50,000 and 500,000 native speakers of Laz in Turkey in a strip of land extending from Melyat to the Georgian border and about 3,000 in Georgia (in the town of Sarpi). The region was officially called Lazistan until 1925.

History of the language

Laz is one of the four South Caucasian languages, closely related to Megrelian language and somewhat less closely to Georgian language. The Laz and Megrelian communities were separated by politics and religion around 500 years ago, and the languages are no longer mutually intelligible. The Laz-Megrelian branch apparently split from Georgian in the first millennium BC or earlier. The ancient kingdom of Colchis was located in the same region the Laz speakers are found in today, and its inhabitants probably spoke an ancestral version of the language. Colchis was the setting for the famous Greek mythology of Jason and the Argonauts. Laz has no official status in either Turkey or Georgia, and no written standard. It is presently used only for familiar and casual interaction, for literary, business, and other purposes, Laz speakers use their countrys official language (Turkish language or Georgian). Occasional publications in Laz are written using the corresponding alphabets. Laz speakers seem to be decreasing in number, and the language is in danger of extinction.

Language features

Familial features

Like many languages of the Caucasus, Laz has a rich consonantal system (in fact, the richest among the South Caucasian family) but only five vowels (a,e,i,o,u). The nouns are inflected with agglutinative suffixes to indicate grammatical function (4 to 7 case (linguistics)s, depending on the dialect) and number (linguistics) (singular or plural), but not by gender. The Laz verb is inflected with adobe acrobat reader free downloadsuffixes according to person and number, and also for tense, aspect, mood, and (in some dialects) download adobe acrobat readerevidentiality. Up to 50 verbal prefixes are used to indicate spatial orientation/direction. Person and number acrobat reader free downloadsuffixes provided for the free adobe acrobatsubject as well as for adobe acrobat free downloadone or two objects involved farnalla63gin the action, e.g. gimpulam I hide it from you.

Distinguishing features

Some distinctive features of Laz among its family are:
Two additional consonants, /f/ and /h/,
All nouns end with a vowel.
More extensive verb inflection, using directional prefixes.
Substantial lexical borrowings from Greek and from Turkic languages.


Laz has five major dialects:
Hopan, spoken in Hopa,
Vitse-Arkabian, spoken in Arhavi and Fndkl
Chkhalan, spoken in Düzköy,
Atinan, spoken in brigidae608Pazar,
Ardeshenian, spoken in Ardeen. download adobe acrobat readerThe last two are often treated as a single Atinan dialect. Speakers of different Laz dialects have trouble understanding each other, and often prefer to communicate in the official language.

Metamora, Michigan

Metamora is a village located in Lapeer County, Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 507. The village is located within Metamora Township, Michigan.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.7 square kilometer (0.7 square mile). 1.7 km² (0.7 mi²) of it is land and none of it is covered by water.


As of the censusGeographic references 2 of 2000, there are 507 people, 188 households, and 137 families residing in the village. The population density is 296.6/km² (765.4/mi²). There are 204 housing units at an average density of 119.3/km² (308.0/mi²). The racial makeup of the village is 96.84% White (U.S. Census), 0.00% African American (U.S. Census), 0.39% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.20% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.00% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.00% from Race (U.S. Census), and 2.56% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 188 households out of adobe acrobat readerwhich 33.0% have children under acrobat distillerthe age of 18 living with them, 60.6% are Marriage living together, 9.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 27.1% are non-families. 19.7% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.70 and the average family size is 3.14. In the village the population is acrobat readerspread out with adobe acrobat26.6% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.9 males. The median income for a household in the village is $58,088, and the median income for a family is $63,750. Males have a median income of $41,563 versus $26,563 for females. The per capita income for the village is $19,548. 3.6% of the population and 3.6% adobe acrobat downloadof families nolan479yare below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 1.4% of those under the age of egbertine4bp118 and 7.4% of those 65 and acrobat distillerolder are living below the poverty line.